Beauty giant L’Oreal among firms pulling back from Russia

Thirty years ago when communism collapsed in the Soviet Union, Western firms stepped up their presence in Russia. 

The arrival of big Western companies symbolised the start of a new era with Russians becoming eager consumers of brands ranging from fast-food chain McDonalds to Levi jeans and luxury goods. 

Now, in the wake of President Putin’s invasion of Ukraine, some firms, including Apple, Netflix, Zara and Jaguar Land Rover, have announced they are suspending activities in Russia.